Separate personal identification from states licensing. State licensing has too many other complications (tests etc) and has variable process integrity and denial reasons depending on location. Its also currently not guaranteed to be unique. Fingerprints should become the standard instead of signature or even photo based ID. Not as error prone and guaranteed unique. IMHO fingerprints are no more privacy invasion than photo especially when identity theft (super violation) is considered.
Identification should be expanded to non-citizens and foreign tourist to ensure voting denial as appropriate (e.g. deny federal election but perhaps allow city or school district according to local laws). Lower government levels should be able to expand but never narrow voting to whomever they like (e.g. California at state level could be "world conscious" by adding everyone with US ID including known 3 day East Hemisphere tourists). Federal identification would effectively end campaigns to grant federal voting rights to temporary foreign undocumented - which has reached state government levels in some locations. It would also end campaigns designed to change representation to follow political activism (multiple votes for those who have superior political awareness). Maybe we should have separate secondary voting rights attached to issues related to "national hotel customer" campaigns concerned with population present regardless of permanency or loyalty to the US - but we need to maintain separation from permanent loyal citizens without other allegiances. Universal federal identification that includes currently undocumented could actually help legislatures and other government bureaucracies to fairly address non-citizen needs by accurate numbers and demographics.usage statistics.
ICE should NOT be involved in federal identification accept as incidental to their job. Thus state LEOs would still bear primary enforcement duties but WITHOUT implying additional enforcement duties, except that for which a US citizen would be also arrested. Polling volunteers would not be able to let political beliefs influence who gets to vote on what issues nor would they be unable to detect or to allow attempts to vote multiple times (as mostly honor based, signature method obviously does).
Identification of everyone in the US, citizen or not, should be federal not state duty as it spans state boundaries and is vital to federal rights, programs, regulations. In addition to resolving voting problems, federal identification should mean the ability to fairly accurately track legal and illegal US visitors. No longer would US criminals and the undocumented (US and foreign) be able to easily use politics and a stack of alternative acceptable identification to use multiple identities and share common SSNs with an employers assistance.
Identification ideally should mean issuing undocumented (foreign or domestic) people, new US federal identification on the spot instead of arrest (barring prior crimes or threats) - making them minimally documented. Eventually that might even be possible from police cruisers. Those found to already have been issued ID should be ticketed (search costs plus escalation multiplier for repeat occurrences within 3 year window) and released after securing/reissuing ID. Carrying false ID should of course result in immediate arrest processing of some sort (most non-LEO probably only match biometrics on card and record ID card in real time). Perhaps the penalty would merely impose body borne ID that is low risk to attach but not low risk for amateurs to remove (machine readable ink tattoo or a chip in their spine) .
ICE should be able to focus only on deporting illegals whose court cases are finished. By automatically documenting everyone we can demystify: how formerly undocumented people contribute or undermine the US, see who should be granted US citizenship despite using a mostly informal process of integration and see who is merely a good neighbor migrant worker whose entitlements need to be somewhat limited, and see who is naughty enough to be considered "unwelcome".
Given universal identification states could probably simplify drivers and other licensing by just attaching the special licensing data...which could include otherwise unauthenticated identification like QR-codes for truckers to pass toll road scanners etc. But all that licensing processing would be done separately and without need to validate identity.
Initial identification should be based first on fingerprints (though card display would only show single labeled print of choice) due to technology limits. The preferred means of identification for voting.
Facial recognition data and algorithms for machine processing would be included as secondary identification info simply because people get tired, distracted and lose attention to detail. In addition machines are supposedly less often fooled by makeup and effects of aging and weight change. Very high probability matches along with another fairly well trusted identification method (like personal cell phone) could suffice for all but the most critical identification needs...probably for most voting purposes.
Periodically updated facial photos would be legally tertiary due to effects of aging, weight change, plastic surgery, and physical trauma. Photos alone would not be valid for critical identifications but would still work for less important functions like library or depending on states alcohol use when fingerprint readers were down. Other bio-metric data could also be loaded into IDs
Eventually cards might have an index pointing to DNA info in secured offline storage. DNA info would not ordinarily be used for identification purposes due to cost, time, and technology limitations as well as privacy and profiling concerns (profiling is a guess that can compromise rights). Note DNA is modified by virus exposure and upcoming genetic therapies - so DNA info may also need expensive periodic updating.
For practical reasons merchants, financial and government institutions with need for very strong identification should be allowed to cache basic and relevant identification matching info. But for privacy-security reasons such caching should exist only at the most relevant local nodes or more secure regional-national levels. Caching duration should be limited if not active customers or resident or outstanding legal/financial issues. It would probably be valuable to Homeland Security to establish a standard cache/activity interface not only for LEO reasons but actually periodically ensure compliance with basic computer security and caching of identification related records (i.e. national security via verifying resistance to identity/financial type hacking and discouraging accumulation of unnecessary identity related data).